1. Paul Bruce Beeson, MD. (October 18, 1908-August 14, 2006) – This distinguished leader in medicine, who passed away in 2006 at the age of 97, exemplified the word “physician” – accomplished in the art of healing and the treatment of disease. His contributions as a scientist, clinician, and teacher have greatly expanded knowledge and understanding of the human condition, and in pursuing his work, he never lost focus on the importance of care in serving people. Dr. Beeson was Chairman of Medicine at Emory and Yale Medical Schools, Nuffield Professor at Oxford University and Professor and distinguished VA Physician at the University of Washington. He chaired the first Institute of Medicine study on “Aging and Medical Education” in 1978. His leadership as an editor of the Cecil Textbook of Medicine greatly influenced medical education. From his research and patient care base, he grew increasingly interested in the process of aging. This interest led to a commitment that included his editorship of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. He profoundly influenced the career paths of many young physicians, several of whom now form the core leadership in geriatric medicine. Dr. Beeson was, in short, a physician who exemplified the William Osler tradition of excellence. He was quoted to say, “Our profession, after all, deals partly with guess work; we do not deal in absolutes”.
2-3. Gleick J. Chaos – Making a New Science. Penguin Books. New York. 1988. Inner Rhythms. pp. 273. Also, Mandell AJ. From Molecular Biological Simplification to More Realistic Central Nervous System Dynamics: An Opinion. In: Psychiatry: Psychobiological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry 1985;3:2. Cavenar OJ. et al eds. (New York, Lippincott, 1985)
4. Small GW, Silverman DHS, Siddarth P, et al. Effects of a 14-Day Healthy Longevity Lifestyle Program on Cognition and Brain Function. Am Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;14:6. Also, Bredesen DE. Reversal of cognitive decline: a novel therapeutic program. Aging 2014;6:707-717.
5. We used the term Neurocognitive Impairment to avoid a formally diagnostic term. Actually, it is encoded as Neurocognitive Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: DSM-V. American Psychiatric Association.

Fraga MF, et al. Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2005;102:10604-9.
Martin GM. Epigenetic drift in aging identical twins. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 2005;102:10413-4.
Jaffee SR, Price TS. Gene-environment correlations: A review of the evidence and implications for the prevention of mental illness. Mol Psychiatry 2007 May;12:432-42.

Further readings:
Compton MT (ed). Clinical Manual of Prevention in Mental Health. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.; 2010.
McCarron RM, Xiong GL, Keenan CR, Nasrallah HA. Preventive Medical Care in Psychiatry. 2014. American Psychiatric Publishing. American Psychiatric Association.
Fotuhi M, Do D, Jack C. Modifiable factors that alter the size of the hippocampus with aging. Nat Rev Neurol 2012;8:189-202.
Kiraly SJ. Mental health promotion for seniors. BC Medical Journal 2011;53(7):336-340.
Schmidt CW. A deeper look into mental illness. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(8):A404-A410.
Schwarz J. Some Final Views on the Nature of Science, In: Radar, Hula Hoops and Playful Pigs. ECW Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 1999. pp. 277.
The Economist. The father of fractals. The Economist Technology Quarterly, December 6, 2004, pp. 35-36.
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, alternatively Nessim or Nissim, born 1960, is a Lebanese American essayist whose work focuses on problems of randomness and probability. His 2007 book The Black Swan was described in a review by Sunday Times as one of the twelve most influential books since World War II.

Updated: August 31, 2015