Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broadens our knowledge, changes in understanding, treatment and drug therapy are required. The authors have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication. However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in the biomedical sciences, neither the authors nor any other party who has been involved in the preparation or publication of this work warrant that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete and they are not responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from the use of such information. Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources. The programs and information presented in the lectures and workshops produced by the authors of the Healthy Brain Program©, The Healthy Aging Program© and The Eight Pillars of Brain Health and Longevity© are not intended to be a substitute for medical treatment. You are advised to consult with your physician with all matters pertaining to your health because they may require medical diagnosis and treatment.