Chapter 14: Treatment of Disease





Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for growth monitoring, and prevention and management of overweight and obesity in children and youth in primary care. CMAJ 2015;187(6):411-21.

Aarsland D, Larsen JP, Stavanger JC, Laake K. Donepezil treatment in Parkinson’s disease with dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Neurology 2001;56: SUPPL 3-A128.
Abramowicz M. (ed). Drugs that may cause psychiatric symptoms. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics 2002;44(1134):59-62.
Aisen PS, Davis KL, Berg JD et al. A randomized controlled trial of prednisone in Alzheimer’s disease. Aizheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Group. Neurology 2000;54(3):588-93.
Akomolafe A, Beiser A, Meigs JB, Au R, Green RC, Farrer LA, Wolf PA, Seshadri S. Diabetes mellitus and risk of developing Alzheimer disease: results from the Framingham Study. Arch Neurol 2006;63(11):1551-5.
Al-Delaimy WK, Manson JE, Willet WE, et al. Snoring as a risk factor for type II diabetes: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:387-93.
Alexander GE, Saunders AM, Szczepanik J, et al. Relation of age and apolipoprotein E to cognitive function in Down’s syndrome adults. Neuroreport 1997;8(8):1835-40.
Alexopoulos GS, Young RC, Meyers BS. Geriatric depression: age of onset and dementia. Biol Psychiatry 1993;34:141-145.
American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias of Late Life. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154(5)(May Suppl). pp 9-16.
Anderson RE. Billions for defense: the pervasive nature of defensive medicine. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2399-2402.
Aronow WS et al. Increased plasma homocysteine is an independent predictor of new atherothrombotic brain infarction in older persons. Am J Cardiology 2000; 86: 585-6.
Axelsson J, Stefánsson JG, Magnússon A, Sigvaldason H, Karlsson MM. Seasonal Affective Disorders: Relevance of Icelandic and Icelandic-Canadian Evidence to Etiologic Hypotheses. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:153-158.
Balint M. The doctor’s therapeutic function. Lancet 1965;2:1177-80.
Balint M. The structure of the training-cum research seminars: its implications for medicine. Journal of thc Royal College of General Practitioners (London) 1969;17:201-11.
Balint M. What is a Balint group? Journal of Balint Society 1994;22:36-7.
Barber R, Panikkar A, McKeith IG. Dementia with Lewy bodies: diagnosis and management. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2001;16:S12-S18.
Barefoot JC, Helms MJ, Mark DB, et al. Depression and long-term mortality risk in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1996;78:613-617.
Barrett JE, Williams JW, Oxman TE, et al. Treatment of dysthymia and minor depression in primary care: a randomized trial in patients aged 18 to 59 years. J Fam Pract 2001;50:405-12.
Basu R, Dodge H, Stoebr GP, Ganguli M. Sedative-hypnotic use of diphenhydramine in a rural, older adult, community-based cohort: effects on cognition. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;11:205-13.
Basu R, Dodge H, Stoebr GP, Ganguli M. Sedative-hypnotic use of diphenhydramine in a rural, older adult, community-based cohort: effects on cognition. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;11:205-13.
Bezchlibnyk Y, Young LT. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: Focus on Signal Transduction Pathways and the Regulation of Gene Expression. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:135-148.
Bhavnanni BR, Nisker JA, Martin J, Aletebi F, et al. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of a conjugated equine estrogen preparation (Premarin) and a synthetic mixture of estrogens (CES) in postmenopausal women. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2000;7(3):175-83.
Blier P. Crosstalk between the norepinephrine and serotonin systems and its role in the antidepressant response. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001;26(Suppl):S3-10.
Blier P. Norepinephrine and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in depression and mood disorders: their pivotal roles. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001;26(Suppl):S1-2.
Blumenthal JA, Jiang W, Babyak MA, et al. Stress management and exercise training in cardiac patients with myocardial ischemia: effects on prognosis and evaluation of mechanisms. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2213-2223.
Bolla LR, Filley CM, Palmer RM. Dementia DDx: Office diagnosis of the four major types of dementia. Geriatrics 2000;55:34-46.
Bolson EL, Alaupovic P, Frohlich J, Albers JJ. Simvastatin and Niacin, Antioxidant Vitamins, or the Combination for the Prevention of Coronary Disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345(22).
Bostom AG et al. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and stroke incidence in elderly persons: The Framingham Study. Annals Internal Medicine 1999; 131:352-5.
Bots ML et al. Homocysteine and short term risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1999b; 159:38-44.
Bowen J, Teri L, Kukull W, McCormock W, et al. Progression to dementia in patients with isolated memory loss. Lancet 1997;349:763-65.
Boxer AL, Kramer JH, Johnston K, Goldman J, Finley R, Miller BL. Executive dysfunction in hyperhomocysteinemia responds to homocysteine-lowering treatment. Neurology 2005;64:1431-1434.
Brawman-Mintzer, et al. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Issues in Epidemiology. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57(suppl. 7): 3-8.
Broe GA, Grayson DA, Creasey HM, et al. Anti-inflammatory drugs protect against Alzheimer’s disease at low doses. Arch Neurol 2000;57;1586-91.
Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Fisher LD, Cheung MC, Morse JS, Dowdy AA, Marino EK, Delanty N, Vaughan DJ. Vascular effects of statins in stroke. Stroke 1997;28(11):2315.
Brown ES, Suppes T, Khan DA. Mood changes during prednisone bursts in outpatients with asthma. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2002;22:55-61.
Budge M et al. Plasma total homocysteine and cognitive performance in a volunteer elderly population. Ann NY Acad Sci 2000;903:407-410.
Burt VK, Altshuler LL, Rasgon N. Depressive symptoms in the perimenopause: prevalence, assessment, and guidelines for treatment. Harvard Rev Psychiatr 1998;6:121-132.
Campbell IW. Antidiabetic drugs present and future: will improving insulin benefit cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus? Drugs 2000;60(5):1017-28.
Canadian Studies on Health and Aging Working Group. The incidence of dementia in Canada. Neurology 2000;55:66-73.
Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia. CMAJ 1994;150(6):899-913.
Carman, M.B. The Psychology of Normal Aging. Psychiatric Clinics of N America 1997;20(1):15-24.
Carr VJ et al. Determining the effect that consultation-liaison psychiatry in primary care has on family physicians’ psychiatric knowledge. Psychosomatics 1997;38(3):217-229.
Carter DM. Depression and emotional aspects of the menopause. BC Medical Journal 2001;43(8):463-466.
Chrisholm DJ, Campbell LV, Kraegen EW. Pathogenesis of the insulin resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1997;24(9-10):782-4.
Clarke R et al. Folate, vitamin B12 and serum total Homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998b; 55:1449-1455.
Classman AH, Shapiro PA. Depression and the course of coronary artery disease. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:4-11.
Coambs R. Centre for Health promotion, University of Toronto. Chief investigator of study on non-compliance. Reported in: The Medical Post 1995;November 7:pp. 1,75.
Coleman LM, Fowler LL, Williams ME. Use of unproven therapies by people with Alzheimer’s disease. JAGS 1995;43:747-50.
Conte, HR. The Evolving Nature of Psychotherapy Outcome Research. Am J Psychotherapy 1997;51(3):445-448.
Coplan, JD et al. Treatment of Anxiety Disorder in Patients with Mood Disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1990;51(10 Suppl):9-13.
Court JA, Martin-Ruiz C, Graham A, Perry E. Nicotinic receptors in human brain: topography and pathology. J Chem Neuroanat 2000;20:281-298.
Cummings J. Cholinesterase inhibitors: a new class of psychotropic compounds. Am J Psych 2000;157:4-15.
Dalen JE, Hirsh J. Fourth ACCP consensus conference on antithrombotic therapy. Chest (Suppl) 1995;108(4).
Darvesh S, Hopkins DA, Geula C. Neurobiology of butyrylcholinesterase. Neuroscience 2003;4(2):131-38.
DeVries PJ, Honer WG, Kemp PM, et al. Dementia as a complication of schizophrenia. In: Schizophrenia: from development to Dementia. Proceedings: Lecture: April 26, 2001, Arbutus Club, Vancouver, BC.
Dickens C, McGowan L, Clark-Carter D, Creed F. Depression in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 2002;64:52-60.
Dorfer CE, et al. The association of gingivitis and periodontitis with ischemic stroke J Clin Periodontol 2004;31(5):396-401.
Drachman DA, Jick H, Jick S, Sushadri S. Do statins reduce the risk of dementia? 7th Int’l Geneva/Springfield Symposium Abstract P.51).
Eastwood R. The vanishing plaque. International Psychogeriatrics 2001;13(1):3-4.
Eastwood R. Who owns the brain? Can J Psychiatry 1994;39:253-7.
Eaton WW, Armenian H, Gallo J, Pratt L, Ford DE. Depression and risk for onset of type II diabetes. A prospective population-based study. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1097-1102.
Edmeads J. History of migraine treatment. Can J Clin Pharmacol 1999;6(Suppl):5A-8A.
Eisenberg D, Davis R, Ettner S, et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997. JAMA 1998;280(18):1569-75.
Eisenthal S, Emery R, Lazare A, et al. “Adherence” and the negotiated approach to patienthood. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36(4):393-8.
Eliasziw M, Kennedy J, Hill MD, Buchan AM, Barnett HJM, for the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) Group. Early risk of stroke after a transient ischemic attack in patients with internal carotid artery disease. CMAJ 2004;170(7):1105-09.
Ereshefsky L, Riesenman C, Lam YWF. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57(8):17-25.
Ereshefsky L. Antidepressant pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and drug interactions. Geriatrics 1998;53(suppl 4):S22-S33.
Ereshefsky L. Drug interactions of antidepressants. Psych Ann 1996;26:342-350.
Fava GA, et al. Six-Year Outcome for Cognitive Behavorial Treatment of Residual Symptoms in Major Depression. Am J Psych 1998;155:1443-1445.
Fernandez F, Levy JK, Lachar BL, Small GW. The management of depression and anxiety in the elderly. J Clin Psychiatry 1995;56(suppl 2):20-29.
Ferrier IN. Treatment of Major Depression: Is Improvement Enough? J Clin Psychiatry 1999:60 (Suppl. 6).
Fifer SK, et al. Untreated Anxiety Among Adult Primary Care Patients in a Health Maintenance Organization. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:740-750.
Flacker JM, Cummings V, Mach JR, Bettin K, Kiely DK, Wei J. The association of anticholinergic activity with delirium in elderly medical patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;6:31-41.
Flint AJ. Management of anxiety in late life. J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;11:194-200.
Fox NC, Warrington EK, Freeborough PA, et al. Presymptomatic hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease: a longitudinal MRI study. Brain 1996;119:2001-7.
Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK. The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of progress. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;66:137-47.
Frias JP, Yu JG, Olefsky JM. Metabolic effects of troglitazone therapy in type 2 diabetic, obese, and lean normal subjects. Diabetes Care 2000;23(1):64-9.
Friess E. et al. DHEA administration increases REM sleeps & sigma EEG. Am J Physiol 1995;268:E107-13.
Gagnon LM, Patten SB. Major Depression and Its Association With Long Term Medical Conditions. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:149-152.
Gans RO. The metabolic syndrome, depression and cardiovascular disease: interrelated conditions that share pathophysiologic mechanisms. Med Clin North Am 2006;90(4):573-91.
Gardner DM. Evidence-based decisions about herbal products for treating mental disorders. Rev Psychiatr Neurosci 2002;27(5):324-33.
Gauthier S. Advances in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease. CMAJ 2002;166(5):616-23.
Gauthier S. Assessing the Response of Patients with Alzheimer Disease to Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Geriatrics and Aging 2002;5(6):23-24.
Gauthier S. Editorial: Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. International Abstracts 1998;June:1.
Ghaemi SN, Ko JY, Goodwin FK. “Cade’s Disease” and Beyond: Misdiagnosis, Antidepressant Use, and a Proposed Definition for Bipolar Spectrum Disorder. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:125-134.
Gladstone DJ, Kapral MK, Fang J, Laupacis A, Tu JV. Management and outcomes of transient ischemic attacks in Ontario. CMAJ 2004;170(7):1099-1104.
Glazer G. Long term pharmacotherapy of obesity 200: a review of efficacy and safety. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1814-24.
Glazier MG, Bowman MA. A review of the evidence for the use of phytoestrogens as a replacement as a replacement for traditional estrogen replacement therapy. Arch Int Med 2001;161:1161-1172.
Gloth FM 3rd, Alam W, Hollis B. Vitamin D vs. broad spectrum phototherapy in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. J Nutr Health Aging 1999; 3:5-7.
Goble AJ. Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: Problem is probably greater for women BMJ 2005;331(7514):454.
Goble AJ. Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: Problem is probably greater for women. BMJ 2005;331(7514):454.
Gold SM, Irwin MR. Depression and immunity: inflammation and depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Clin 2006;24:507-19.
Goldlist B. Lecture: Barry Goldlist, Professor and Head, Geriatric Medicine, University of Toronto, Second Consensus Conference on Dementia, Montréal, October 2003.
Gottfries J et al. One-carbon metabolism and other biochemical correlates of cognitive impairment as visualized by principal component analysis. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2001; 14:109-14.
Goya RG, Bolognani F. Homeostasis, thymic hormones and aging. Gerontology 1999;45(3):174-78.
Grof P. Mood Disorders – New Definitions, Treatment Directions, and Understanding. (Editorial) Can J Psychiatry 2002;47(2).
Grundy SM, Hansen B, Smith SC, Cleeman JI, Kahn RA. AHA/NHL/ADA Conference Proceedings. Circulation 2004;109:551-6.
Haffner SM. Do interventions to reduce coronary heart disease reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes? A possible role for inflammatory factors. Circulation 2001;103(3):346-7.
Hammell DMS. Menopause, HRT and the heart: a clinical perspective. BC Medical Journal 2001;43(8):447-451.
Helgason CM, Wolf PA. AHA Conference Proceedings. American Heart Association Prevention Conference IV: Prevention and rehabilitation of stroke. Stroke 1997;8(7):1498.
Henderson VW, Paganin-Hill A, Miller BL, et al. Estrogen for Aizheimer’s disease in women: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2000;54(2):295-301.
Hennessy MJ, Britton TC. Transient ischemic attacks: Evaluation and management. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:432-6.
Hill M, Barber PA, Demchuk AM, Sevick RJ, Newcommon NJ, Green T, Buchan AM. Building a “brain attack” team to administer thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. CMAJ 2000;162(11):1589-93.
Hogan D, Ebly E. Complimentary medicine use in a dementia clinic population. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1996;10(2):63-67.
Hogan DB, Ebly EM. Predicting who will develop dementia in a cohort of Canadian seniors. Can J Neurol Sci 2000 Feb;27(l):18-24.
Hrobjartsson A, Gotzsche P. Is the placebo powerless? NEJM 2001;344:1594-1602.
Hypertension Education is paying off in US. – Dr. David MacLean, Director of Health Research and Education (SFU)– American Journal of Hypertension – November 2001.
Irish, IT. Deciphering the Physician-Older Patient Interaction. Int’l J Psychiatry in Medicine 1997;27(3):251-267.
Jiang W, Babyak M, Krantz DS, et al. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemic and cardiac events. JAMA 1996;275:1651-56.
Jick H, Zornberg GL, Jick SS, Seshadri S, Drachman DA. Statins and the risk of dementia. Lancet 2000;356(9242):1627-31. Erratum in: Lancet 2001;357(9255):562.
Johnston DCC, Hill MD. The patient with transient cerebral ischemia: a golden opportunity for stroke prevention. CMAJ 2004;170(7):1134-7.
Juby A. Delirium in The Elderly. The Canadian Journal of CME October 1998 pp.93-104.
Judd LL, et al. A Prospective 12-Year Study of Subsyndromal and Syndromal Depression Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998;55:694-700.
Judd LL, Kessler RC, Paulus MP, et al. Comorbidity as a fundamental feature of generalized anxiety disorders: results from the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) Acta Psychiatr Scand 1998;98(Suppl 393):6-11.
Kannel WB. Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcome in different arterial territories. J Cardiovascular Risk 1994;1:333-9.
Kates N et al. Providing psychiatric backup to family physicians by telephone. Can J Psychiatry 1997;42:955-959.
Kates N. Family Medicine and Psychiatry. Canadian Family Physician 1999;45.
Kates N. Sharing care: The psychiatrist in the family physician’s office. Can J Psychiatry 1997;42:960-965.
Katzmarzyk PT. The Canadian Obesity Epidemic, 1985-1998. CMAJ 2002;166(8).
Kennedy S, McIntyre R, Fallu A, Lam R. Pharmacotherapy to sustain the fully remitted state. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2002;27(4):269-80.
Kennedy SH, Lam RM. (Co-chairs). Canadian Psychiatric Association and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of Depressive Disorders. Can J Psychiatry 2001;46(suppl 1):13S-76S.
Kessler, RC et al. Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51.
Khachaturian Z. Press Release: Study shows Alzheimer’s can be slowed by hobbies. Globe & Mail 2001;March 6.
Kim YS, Joh TH. Microglia, major player in the brain inflammation: their roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Exp Mol Med 2006 Aug 31;38(4):333-47.
Kiraly SJ, Kiraly MA, Hawe RD, Makhani N. Vitamin D as a neuroactive substance: Review. TheScientificWorldJournal 2006;6:125-139.
Kiraly SJ, Kiraly RJ. Healthy brain program: prevention of dementia. Proceedings. 2nd Colloquium on Dementia. Geriatrics Today 2003;6(3):133.
Kivipelto M, Helkala EL, Laasko MP, Hanninen T, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Soininen H, Tuomilheto J, Nissien A. Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease in later life: longitudinal population based study. BMJ 2001:322:1447-51.
Kjernsited K, Evans M. Generalized anxiety disorder: new perspectives in management. Canadian Journal of Diagnosis 2001;may(suppl):1-11.
Klegeris A, McGeer PL. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2005;2(3):355-65.
Klein JG. Five pitfalls in decisions about diagnosis and prescribing. BMJ 2005;330:781-83.
Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker ES, Nathan DM. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6):393-403.
Koder D, Brodaty H, Astey K. Cognitive Therapy for depression in the Elderly. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry 1996;11:97-107.
Kotake H, Oikawa S. Syndrome X. Nippon Rinsho 1999 Mar;57(3):622-6.
Krishnan KR, Tupler LA, Ritchie JC Jr, et al. Apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 frequency in geriatric depression. Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:69-71.
Krishnan KRR, Taylor WD, McQuoid DR, MacFall JR, Payne ME, Provenzale JM, Steffens DC. Clinical characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging-defined subcortical ischemic depression. Biol Bsychiatry 2004;55:390-97.
Kroenke K, et al. Common Symptoms in Ambulatory Care: Incidence, Evaluation, Therapy and Outcome. The American Journal of Medicine 1998;86.
Kruit MC, van Buchem MA, Hofman PAM, Bakkers JTN, Terwindt GM, Ferrari MD, Launer LJ. Migraine as a risk factor for subclinical brain lesions. JAMA 2004;291(4):427-34.
Kupfer DJ. Long-term treatment of depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1991;52(suppl):28- 34.
Lampley-Dallas VT. Incompetence: update on the diagnosis ofAlzheimer’s disease. J Oklahoma State Medical Assoc 1999;92(2):61-5.
Lanctot KL, Herrmann N. Donepezil for behavioural disorders associated with Lewy bodies: a case series. Int J Geriatri cPsychiatr 2000;15(4):338-45.
Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vit D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135(4):319-23.
Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology 1998;135:319-23.
Larocque M. The Treatment of Obesity. Mature Medicine Canada 2000;3(3):105-107.
Launer IJ, Andersen K, Dewey ME et al. Rates and risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: results from EURODEM pooled analyses. EURODEM Incidence Research Group and Work Groups. European Studies of Dementia. Neurology 1999;52(1):78-84.
Launer LJ, White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW. Cholesterol and neuropathologic markers of AD: a population-based autopsy study. Neurology 2001;57:1447-1452.
Lazarus JH, Obuobie K. Thyroid disorders – an update. Postgrad Med 2000;76:529-536.
Lee KMN, Lee M, Jonat, Birmingham CL. Obesity diagnosis and treatment algorithm. BC Medical Journal 2002;44(3).
Lehmann M et al. Identification of cognitive impairment in the elderly: homocysteine as an early marker. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 1999; 10:12-20.
LeMelledo JM, Baker GB. Neuroactive steroids and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2002;27(3):161-5.
Leonard BE. Stress, norepinephrine and depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001;26(Suppl):S11-16.
Li G, Shofer JB, Kukull WA, Peskind ER, Tsuang DW, Breitner JCS, McCormick W, Bowen JD, Teri L, Schellenberg GD, Larson EB. Serum cholesterol and risk of Alzheimer disease: A community-based cohort study. Neurology 2005;65(7):1045-50.
Liddell MB, Lovestone S, Owen MJ. Genetic risk of Alzheimer’s disease: advising relatives. Br J Psychiatry 2001;178:7-11.
Little P, Everitt H, Willimson I, Warner G, Moore M, Gould C, Ferrier K, Payne S. Observational study of effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. BMJ 2001;323(7318):808-11.
Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Stern Y et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with stroke in a multiethnic cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154(7):635-641.
Lyketsos CG, Steinberg M, TschanzJT, Norton MC, Steffens DC, BreitnerJC. Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: findings from the Cache County study on memory in aging. Am J Psychiatr 2000; 157(5):708-14.
MacKnight C. Cholinesterase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Vascular Dementia. Geriatrics and Aging 2002;5(6):21-22.
Maelicke A, Albuquerque EX. Allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. European Journal of Pharmacology 2000;393:165-70.
Maelicke A. Allosteric modulation of nicotinic receptors as a treatment strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;Sep 11(Suppl 1):11-18.
Magnusson A. An overview of epidemiological studies on seasonal affective disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000;101:176-84.
Magnusson A. An overview of epidemiological studies on seasonal affective disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000;101:176-84.
Maki KC. Dietary factors in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease associated with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2004;93(suppl):12C-17C.
Mandelbrot B. He worries that modern science is now becoming too specialized. In: The Economist Technology Quarterly. The Economist, December 6, 2004; pp. 35-6.
Marcus AO. Safety of drugs commonly used to treat hypertension, dyslipidemia, and Type 2 diabetes (the metabolic syndrome): part 2. Diabetes Technol Ther 2002;2(2):275-81.
Markowitz, John C. Developments in Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Can J Psychiatry 1999;44(Aug):556-561.
Massion AO, et al. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Morbidity in Panic Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:600-607.
Maxwell CJ et al. Serum folate levels and subsequent adverse cerebrovascular outcomes in elderly persons. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2002; 13: 225-34.
Mayeux R, Saunders AM, Shea S, et al. Utility of apolipoprotein E genotype in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 1998;338:506-11.
McAlister FA, Campbell NRC, Zarnke K, et al. The management of hypertension in Canada: a review of current guidelines, their shortcomings and implications for the future. CMAJ 2001;164:517-22.
McCaddon A et al. Homocysteine and cognitive decline in healthy elderly. Dement Geriatr Disord 2001;12:309-13.
McGeer EG, Klegeris A, McGeer PL. Inflammation, the complement system and the diseases of aging. Neurobiol Aging 2005;Dec;26 Suppl 1:94-7.
McGeer PL, Akiyama H, Itagaki S, McGeer EG. Immune system response in Alzheimer’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci 1989;16(4 Suppl):516-27.
McGeer PL, Kawamata T, Walker DG, Akiyama H, Tooyama I, McGeer EG. Microglia in degenerative neurological disease. Glia 1993;7(1):84-92.
McGeer PL, McGeer E, Rogers J, Sibley J. Anti-inflammatory drugs and Alzheimer disease. Lancet 1990;335(8696):103.
McGeer PL, McGeer EG, Kawamata T, Yamada T, Akiyama H. Reactions of the immune system in chronic degenerative neurological diseases. Can J Neurol Sci 1991;18(3 Suppl):376-9.
McGeer PL. Inflammation and the degenerative diseases of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1035:104-16.
Michalak EE, Lam RW. Breaking the Myths: New Treatment Approaches for Chronic Depression. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:635-43.
Minagar A, Shapshak P, Fujimura R, Ownby R, Heyes M, Eisdorfer C. The role of macrophage/microglia and astrocytes in the pathogenesis of three neurologic disorders: HIV-associated dementia, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 2002;202(1-2):13-23.
Mintzer JE, Brawman-Mintzer O. Agitation as a possible expression of generalized anxiety disorder in demented elderly patients: Toward a treatment approach. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57(suppl 7):55-63.
Mittleman MS, Ferris SH, Shulman E, Steinberg G, Levin B. A family intervention to delay nursing home placement of patients with Aizheimer’s disease. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1996;276 (21):1725-31.
Moncrieff J. Are antidepressants overrated? a review of methodological problems in antidepressant trials. J Ner Ment Dis 2001;189:288-295.
Monroe SM, Harkness K, Simons AD, Thase ME. Life stress and the symptoms of major depression. J Nerv Ment Dis 2001;189:168-75.
Montemuro S. Relieving the symptoms of menopause: from herbs to hormones. BC Medical Journal 2001;43(8):452-457.
Murray CJL, Lopez AD, eds. The Global Burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the World Health Organization, 1996.
Myers RH, Schaefer EJ, Wilson PWF et al. Apolipoprotein E4 association with dementia in a population-based study: The Framingham Study. Neurology 1996;46:673-77.
NalbantogluJ, Gilfix BM, Bertrand P et al. Predictive value of apoliproprotein E genotyping in Aizheimer’s disease: Results of an autopsy series and an analysis of several combined studies. Ann Neurol 1994;36:889-95.
Nilsson K et al. The plasma homocysteine concentration is better than that of serum methylmalonic acid as a marker for sociopsychological performance in a psychogeriatric population. Clin Chemistry 2000; 46: 691-6.
Nissenen A, Tuomilehto J, Korhonen HJ, Piha T, Salonen JT, Puska P. Ten year results of hypertension care in the community. Follow-up of the North Karelia hypertension control program. Am J Epedemiol 1988;127(3):488-99.
Nissenen A, Tuomilehto J, Puska P. From pilot project to national implementation: experiences from the North Karelia Project. Scand J Prim Health Care Suppl 1988;1:49-56.
Nobler MS, Roose SP. Differential Response to Antidepressants in Melancholic and Severe Depression. Psychiatric Annals 1998;28:84-88.
Nordberg A, Svensson AL. Cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a comparison of tolerability and pharmacology. Drug Safety 1998;19:465-80.
O’Rourke F, Dean N, Akhtar N, Shuaib A. Current and future concepts in stroke prevention. CMAJ 2004;170(7):1123-33.
Oslin D, Atkinson RM, Smith DM, Hendrie H. Alcohol Related Dementia: Proposed Clinical Criteria. Int J Geriat Psychiatry 1998;13:203-212.
Patterson CJ, Gauthier S, Bergeman H et al. The recognition, assessment and management of dementing disorders: conclusions from the Canadian Consensus Conference on Dementia. CMAJ June 15;1999:160(12 Suppl).
Patterson CJS, Gauthier S, Bergman H, Cohen CA, Feightner JW, Feldman H, Hogan DB. Canadian Consensus Conference on Dementia: a physician’s guide to using the recommendations. CMAJ 1999;160:1738-42.
Patterson CJS, Gauthier S, Bergman H, et al. The recognition, assessment and management of dementing disorders: conclusions from the Canadian Consensus Conference on Dementia. CMAJ 1999;160(suppl12):S1-S15.
Paykel ES, et al. Residual symptoms after partial remission: an important outcome in depression. Psychol Med 1995;25:1171-1180.
Paykel ES. Remission and Residual Symptomatology in Major Depression. Psychopathology 1998;31:5-14.
Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Pahor M, et al. Chronically depressed mood and cancer risk in older persons. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1888-1893.
Perry IJ et al. Prospective study of serum total homocysteine concentration and risk of stroke in middle-aged British men. Lancet 1995; 346:1395-98.
Perry, EK, Morris CM, Court JA, et al. Alteration in nicotine binding sites in Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: possible index of early neuropathology. Neuroscience 1995;64(2):385-95.
Pfeffer A, Luczywek E, Golebiowski M, Czyzewski K, Barcikowska M. Frontotemporal dementia: an attempt at clinical characteristics. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 1999;10(3):217-20.
Pietinen P, Lahti-Koski M, Vertiainen E, Puska P. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease in Finland since the early 1970’s: a success story. J Nutr Health Aging 2001;5(3):150-4.
Poirier J. Apolipoprotein E in the brain and its role in Alzheimer’s disease. J Psychiaytry Neurosci 1996;21(2):128-34.
Poirier MF, et al. Venlafaxine and paroxetine in treatment-resistant depression. Br J Psych 1999;175:12-16.
Prince M, Rabe-Hesketh S, Bennan P. Do antiarthritic drugs decrease the risk of cognitive decline? An analysis based on data from the MRC Treatment Trial in Older Adults. Neurology 1998;50:374-79.
Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F, Chiappelli M, Montesi F, Tumini E, Mariani E, Licastro F, Patterson C. Blood inflammatory markers and risk of dementia: The Conselice Study of Brain Aging. Neurobiol Aging 2006 Sep 28;(Epub ahead of print).
Ray WA, Taylor JA, Meador KG, et al. Reducing antipsychotic drug use in nursing homes. A controlled trial of provider education. Arch Intern Med 1993;153 (6):713-21.
Regelson W, Kalimi M. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) – the multifunctional steroid. Annals NY Acad. Sci 1994;719:564-575.
Reynolds CF, Frank E. Houck PR, et al. Which Elderly Patients with Remitted Depression Remain Well with Continued Interpersonal Psychotherapy after Discontinuation of Antidepressant Medication. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154(7):1958-962.
Rickels K et al. The Clinical Presentation of Generalized Anxiety in Primary-Care Settings: Practical Concepts of Classification and Management. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58 (suppl 2):4-11.
Ridker PM et al. Homocysteine and risk of cardiovascular disease among postmenopausal women. JAMA 1999; 281:1817-21.
Riggs K et al. Relations of vitamin B12, B6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the normative aging study. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63:306-14.
Rockwood K, Kirkland S, Hogan DB, MacKnight C, Merry H, Verreault R, Wolfson C, McDowell I. Use of Lipid-Lowering Agents, Indication Bias, and the Risk of Dementia in Community-Dwelling Elderly People. Arch Neurol Feb 2002;59:223-227.
Rockwood K, Wentzel C, Hachinski V, et al. Prevalence and outcomes of vascular cognitive impairment. Neurology 2000;54:447-51.
Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Jacobsen FM, et al. Melatonin in seasonal affective disorder and phototherapy. J Neural Transm Suppl 1986;21:257-67.
Roussin A. Stroke Prevention. The Canadian Journal of CME 1998; August:85-89.
Roy-Byrne P et al. Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Primary Care: The Precursor/Modifier Pathway to Increased Health Care Utilization. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58(suppl3):34-38.
Sadavoy J. Integrated Psychotherapy for the Elderly. Can J Psychiatry 1994;39(8)(Suppl 1):S19-26.
Sartorius N, et al. An International Study of Psychological Problems in Primary Care. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:819-824.
Scheidlinger S. An Overview of Nine Decades of Group Psychotherapy. Hosp. and Community Psychiatry 1994;45(3):217-225.
Schreuder JN. Posttraumatic Re-experiencing in Older People: Working Through or Cover Up. Am J Psychotherapy 1996;50(2):231-243.
Schupf N, Kapell D, Nightingale B, Rodriguez A, Tycko B, Mayeux R. Earlier onset of Alzheimer’s disease in men with Down’s syndrome. Neurology 1998;50(4):991-5.
Scogin F, McElreath L. Efficacy of Psychosocial Treatments for Geriatric Depression: A Quantitative Review. J Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1994;62(l):69-74.
Scott WK, Edwards KB, Davis DR, Cornman CB, Macera CA. Risk of institutionalization among community long-term care clients with dementia. Gerontologist 1997;37(1):46-51.
Seidman SN, Walsh BT. Testosterone and depression in aging men. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;7:18-33.
Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, D’Agostino RB, Wilson PWF, Wolf PA. Plasma Homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. NEJM 2002;346:476-483.
Skoog I; Gustafson D. Hypertension, hypertension-clustering factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Res 2003;25(6):675-80.
Skoog I; Gustafson D. Hypertension, hypertension-clustering factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Res 2003;25(6):675-80.
Smith D. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive deficit in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75:785-6.
Smith D. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive deficit in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75:785-6.
Snowdon D, Greiner LH, Mortimer JA, et al. Brain infarction and the clinical expression of Aizheimer disease. The Nun Study. JAMA 1997;Mar 12;277(10):813-7.
Stahl SM. Basic Psychopharmacology of Antidepressants, Part 1: Antidepressants Have Seven Distinct Mechanisms of Action. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:(suppl 4):5-14.
Steffens DC, Plassman BL, Helms MJ, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Sanders AM, Breitner JC. A twin study of late-onset depression and apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psychiatry 1997;41:851-856.
Stefurak T. Cognitive and Behavioral Disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. Geriatrics & Aging 2002;5(3)28-30.
Stone NJ. Focus on lifestyle change and the metabolic syndrome. Endocrinol metab Clin N Am 2004;33:493-508.
Strain LA, Bladford AA, St. John BD,. Who remains cognitively intact among the 80+ age group? Geriatrics Today 2003;6:141-45.
Stricker BH. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1515-1521.
Sunderland T, Rubinow DR, Tariot PN, et al. CSF somatostatin in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, older depressed patients and age-matched control subjects. Am J Psychiatr 1987;144:1313-1316.
Suri R, Burt VK. The assessment and treatment of postpartum psychiatric disorders. J Pract Psychiatr Behav Health 1997;3:67-77.
Tan ZS, Seshadri S, Beiser A, Wilson PW, Kiel DP, Tocco M, D’Agostino RB, Wolf PA. Plasma total cholesterol level as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(9):1053-7.
Tariot PN, Cummings JL, Katz IR, Mintzer J, Perdomo CA, Schwam EM, Whalen E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with Alazheimer’s disease in the nursing home. JAGS 2001;49:1590-99.
Tariot PN, Salzman C, Yeung PP, Pultz J, Rak IW. Long-Term Use of Quetiapine in Elderly Patients with Pscychotic Disorders. Clinical Therapeutics 2000; 22(9)1068-1084.
Thal LJ. Potential prevention strategies for Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Dis 1996;10(suppl1):6-8.
Thase ME, et al. Tricyclics and Newer Antidepressant Medications: Treatment Options for Treatment-Resistant Depressions. Depression 1995;2:152-168.
Thase, Michael E. Remission of Depression and Anxiety: The New Goal for Patients Treated with Antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60(suppl 22).
Thompson LW. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Treatment for Late-Life Depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;51(Suppl.5):29-37.
Thompson WG. Early recognition and treatment of glucose abnormalities to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. May Clin Proc 2001 Nov;76(11):1137-43.
Tipping J. Ready for a challenge of a different nature ? The Canadian Journal of CME, 1996;July:1-2.
Tong G, Corey-Bloom J. Galantamine – a new treatment for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics and Aging 2001;4(7).
Tosteson A, Weinstein M, Hunink M, Mittleman MA, Williams LW, Goldman PA, Goldman L. Cost-Effectiveness of Population-wide Educational Approaches to Reduce Serum Cholesterol Levels. Circulation 1997;95:24-30.
Tune L, Carr S, Hoag E, Cooper T. Anticholinergic Effects of Drugs Commonly Prescribed for the Elderly: Potential Means for Assessing Risk of Delirium. Am J Psychiatry 149:10, October 1992.
Tune LE. Great progress in diagnosis and treatment of dementia. (Editorial) Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;11(4):388-90.
Tuomilehto J, Ryynanen OP, Koistinen A, Rastenyte D, Nissenen A, Puska P. Low diastolic blood pressure and mortality in a population-based cohort of 16913 hypertensive patients in North Karelia, Finland. J Hypertens 1998 Sep;16(9):1235-42.
van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48(10):1183-94.
van Goor LP et al. Elevated homocysteine levels predict lower performance of cognition in the elderly. Homocysteine Metabolism, 3rd International Conference 1-5 July 2001. Abstract 191.
Van Reekum R, Simard M, Clarke D, Binns MA, Conn D. Late-life depression as a possible predictor of dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;7:151-9.
Vartiainen E, Jousilahti P, Alfthan G, Sundvall J, Pietinen P, Puska P. Cardiovascular risk factor changes in Finland, 1972-1997. Int J Epidemiol 200 Feb;29(1):49-56.
Veld BA, Ruitenberg A, Hofman A, Launer LJ, van Duijn CM, Stijnen T, Breteler MM, Stricker BH. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345(21):1515-21.
Velo BA, Ruitenberg AM, Hofman A, Launer LJ et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. N Eng J Med 2001;345:1515-1521.
Vig EK, Hu H. Lead toxicity in older adults. JAGS 2000;48:1501-06.
Vogel T, Benetos A, Verreault R, Kaltenbach G, Kiesmann M, Berthel M. Risk factors for Alzheimer: towards prevention? Presse Med 2006;35(9 Pt 2):1309-16.
Wang HX et al. Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer´s disease. Neurology 2001; 56:1188-94.
Wehr TA, Duncan Jr. WC, Sher L, et al. A circadian signal of change of season in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:1108-14.
Weir E. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: a new series. CMAJ 2002;166(8).
Weissman MM. Psychotherapy in the Maintenance Treatment of Depression. Br J Psychiatry 1994;165(Suppl 26):42-50.
Wherrett J. Cerebrovascular pathologies in Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics and Aging 2003;6(9):55-7.
Wherrett J. Cerebrovascular pathologies in Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics and Aging 2003;6(9):55-7.
Whitmer R, Quesenberry Jr. CP, Yaffe K. Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: Authors’ reply. BMJ 2005;331(7514):455.
Whitmer RA, Gunderson EP, Barrett-Connor E, Quesenberry Jr. CP, Yaffe K. Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: a 27 year longitudinal population based study BMJ 2005;330(7504):1360.
Whitmer RA,Sidney S, Selby J, Johnston SC, Yaffe K. Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology 2005;64:277-81.
Wiernsperger NF. Metformin: intrinsic vasculoprotective properties. Diabetes Techno Ther 2000 Summer;2(2):259-72.
Wilkin TJ. Metabolic syndrome: maladaptation to a modern world. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2004;97:511-20.
Wittchen H-U, et al. DSM-III-R Generalized Anxiety Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:355-364.
Wolfson C, Wolfson DB, Ashgarian M, M’Lan CE, Ostbye T, Rockwood K, Hogan DB. Clinical progression of dementia: study group. N Engl J Med 2001;344(15):1111-6.
Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Roberts E, Manfredi F, Chan T, Ormiston S, Johnson R, Canick J, Brizendine L, Weingartner J. Antidepressant and cognition-enhancing effects of DHEA in major depression. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995;774:337-339.
Woolfenden AR, Albers GW. Long-term stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. BC Medical Journal 2002;44(3).
Yaffe K, Barrell-Connor E, Lin F, Grady D. Serum lipoprotein levels, statin use, and cognitive function in older women. Arch Neurol 2002;59:378-84.
Yaffe K, Kanaya A, Lindquist K, Simonsick EM, Harris T, Shorr RI, Tylavsky FA, Newman AB. The metabolic syndrome, inflammation and risk of cognitive decline. JAMA 2004;292(18):2237-42.
Zindel Segal, Vincent P, Levitt A. Efficacy of combined, sequential and crossover psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in improving outcomes in depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2002;27(4):281-90.
Zinman B. PPAR gamma agonists in type 2 diabetes: how far have we come in preventing the inevitable? A review of the metabolic effects of rosiglitazone. Diabetes Obes Metab 2001 Aug3; Suppl 1:S34-43.
Zirk H. Optimizing Drug Therapy in the Elderly. The Canadian Journal of CME / January 2001.

Kisley S. No Mental Health without Oral Health. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2016;61(5):277-282.

Balint M, Balint E. Psychotherapeutic Techniques in Medicine. Tavistock Publications, London. 1961.
Balint M. The Doctor, his Patient and the Illness. International Universities Press Inc., New York. 1972.
Burns D. Feeling Good – The New Mood Therapy. Avon Books. New York, 1992.
Burt VK, Hendrick VC. Concise Guide to Women’s Mental Health Washington DC; London, UK: American Psychiatric Press; 1997.
Burt VK, Hendrick VC. Concise Guide to Women’s Mental Health. Washington DC; London, UK: American Psychiatric Press; 1997.
Burt VK, Hendrick VC. Psychiatric assessment of female patients. In: Hales RE, Yudofsky SC, Talbott JA, eds. The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry, 3rd ed. Washington, DC; London, UK: American Psychiatric Press; 1999.
Costa E, (ed). The benzodiazepines: from molecular biology to clinical practice. Neuropharmacology of benzodiazepines: synaptic mechanism and neuronal basis of action.1983;New York: Raven Press, pp21-66.
Guyatt G, Rennie D. (eds). Users’Guides to the Medical Literature. Chicago: AMA Press; 2002.
Harvey R, Fox NC, Rossor MN. Dementia Handbook. Martin Dunitz Ltd., London 1999.
Herr JJ, Weakland JH. Counseling Elders and their Families. Practical Techniques for Applied Gerontology. Springer Publishing Company, New York. 1979.
Jucker M, Beyrether K, Haass C, Nitsch R. Christen Y. (Eds). Alzheimer: 100 years and beyond. Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease series. Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg. 2006.
LFM Scinto, Daffner KR. Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, New Jersey, 2000.
Lichter DG, Cummings GL. Frontal-Subcortical Circuits in Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders. New York: The Guilford Press; 2001.
McGeer EG, McGeer PL. Inflammation and the lesions of Alzheimer’s disease. In: Jucker M, Beyrether K, Haass C, Nitsch R. Christen Y. (Eds). Alzheimer: 100 years and beyond. Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease series. Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg. 2006. pp 413.
Myers WA. Dynamic Therapy of the Older Patient. Jason Aronson, New York. 1984.
Rai G, Rosenthal J, Morris J Iliffe S. Shared Care of Older People. Elsevier Limited, Edinburgh. 2006.
Sackett DL, et al. Evidence based practice. How to practice and teach. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 2000.
Scharre DW. Neuropsychiatric aspects of neoplastic, demyelinating, infectious and inflammatory brain disorders. In: Coffey CE, Cummings JL. (Eds). Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry. The American Psychiatric Press. Washington. DC. 2005. pp. 524-547.
Solomon, A. The Noonday Demon – an Atlas of Depression. (2001 National Book Award).
Zarit SH, Knight BG. A Guide to Psvchotherapy and Aging: Effective Clinical Interventions in a Life-Stage Context. American Psychological Association, Washington. 1996.

Revised: May 18, 2016