1. William Boyd, MB, ChB, MD, MRCP, CC (June 21, 1885 – March 10, 1979) was a Scottish-Canadian physician, pathologist, academic, and author known for his medical textbooks. In 1968, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada, Canada’s highest civilian honor, “for his services as a pathologist and as a founding member of the National Cancer Institute”. Office of the Governor General of Canada. Order of Canada citation. Queen’s Printer for Canada. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
1.1 Berthold AA. Transplantation der hoden. Archiv Anat Physiol Wiss Med 1849;16:42-46.
2. Asher R. Myxedematous madness. BMJ 1949;2:555-62.
3. Sequard B. The Elixer of LIfe. J.G. Cupples Company. Boston/ 1989.
4. Swerdloff RS, et al. Effect of androgens on the brain and other organs during development and aging. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1992;17(4): 375-83.75-7. 5. Barrett-Connor E, Goodman-Gruen D.
Cognitive function and endogenous sex hormones in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:1289-93.
6. Bain J. Andropause: Testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Canadian Family Physician 2001;47:91-7. 7. Jolles J. Vasopressin and human behaviour. In: Gash DM, Boer GJ, eds. Vasopressin:
principles and properties. Plenum Press. New York. 1987. pp. 549-87.
8. Kiraly SJ, Kiraly MA, Hawe RD, Makhani N. Vitamin D as a neuroactive substance: Review. TheScientificWorldJournal 2006;6:125-139.9. McGrath J, Feron F, Eyles D.(Letter) Vitamin D: the neglected neurosteroid? Trends Neurosci 2001;24(10)570-71. (and Replies: pp 571 73 in same issue). 10. Chatterjee M. Vitamin D and genomic
stability. Mutat Res 2001;475(1-2):69-87.
11. Rucker D, Allan JA, Fick GH, Hanley DA. Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. CMAJ 2002;166(12):1517-24.
12. Yaffe K, Sawaya G, Liebenberg I, Grady D. Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women: effects on cognitive function and dementia. JAMA 1998;279:688-95.
13. Levinoff EJ. The Biological and Cognitive Effects of Estrogen on the Aging Brain. Geriatrics & Aging 2002;5(3)41-44.
14. Coker LH, Shumaker SA. Editorial. Estrogen replacement therapy, cognition, and cerebral changes by MRI in the Cardiovascular Health Study. JAGS 2000;48:588-89.
15. Kuiper GJ, Carlquist M, Gustaffsson J. Estrogen is a Male Hormone and a Female Hormone. Science & Medicine 1998;4:36-48.
16. Paganini-Hill A, Henderson VW. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:2213-17.
17. Yusuf S, Anand S. Hormone replacement therapy; a time for pause [editorial]. CMAJ 2002;167(4):357-9.
18. McEwen BS, Alves SE, Bulloch K, Weiland NG. Ovarian steroids and the brain: implications for cognition and aging. Neurology 1994;48:S15-18. 19. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative
randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321-33.
20. Offer RC, Offer SW. Osteoporosis and menopause: taking charge of bone health. BC Medical Journal 2001;43(8):458-462.
21. Fluker MR. HRT in older women: Is it ever too late? BC Medical Journal 2001;43(9):517-520.
22. Hammell DMS. Menopause, HRT and the heart: a clinical perspective. BC Medical Journal 2001;43(8):447-451.Wyeth Canada: Important safety information on estrogen plus progesterone [Dear Health Care Professional Letter]. Markham (ON): Wyeth Canada; 2003 May 28. Was available: /premplus_e.html (accessed 2003 June 24).
23. Colborne T, Dumanoski D, Peterson Myers J. Our Stolen Future. Chapter 5. pp. 68-86. Plume, Penguin Books. New York. 1997.
24. De Boer H, Blok GJ, Van der Veen EA. Clinical Aspects of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults. Endocrine Reviews 1995;16(1): 63-88.
25. Humphries KH, Gill S. Risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy: The evidence speaks. CMAJ 2003;168(8):1001-10.
26. Howard AD, Feighner SD, Cully DF. Receptors in pituitary and hypothalamus that function in growth hormone release. Science 1996;273:974-77.
27. Martin JB. Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion. N Engl J Med 1973;288(26).
28. Rosen T, Granhed H, Szucs J, Bengtsson BA. Reduced bone mineral content in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Acta Endocrinol 1993;129:201-206.
29. Halle J. The management and treatment of type II diabetes. The Canadian Journal of CME 2001;June:65-77.
30. Litwak et al. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2013, 5:57.
31. Wild S et. al. Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27:1047-1053, 2004.
32. Nouwen A. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia (2010) 53:2480-2486.
33. Ali S. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med (2006) 23:1165–1173.
34. Anderson RJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care (2001)24:1069–1078.
35. Engum A. The role of depression and anxiety in onset of diabetes in a large population-based study. J Psychosom Res (2007) 62:31–38.
36. Cordain L. Hyperinsulinemic diseases of civilzation: more than just Syndrome X. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 137 (2003) 95-112.
37. Greenspan FS, Strewler GJ. Basic & Clinical Endocrinology. 5th edition. Appleton & Lange. Stamford, Connecticut. 1997.
38. Wauters M. Human leptin: from an adipocyte hormonse to an endocrine mediator. European Journal of Endocrinology (200) 143; 293-311.
39. Louis A. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell. (1995) 83; 1263-1271.
40. Myers M. Mechanisms of Leptin Action and Leptin Resistance. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2008. 70:537–56.
41. O’Rahilly S. 20 Years of Leptin: What we know and what the future holds. J Endocrinol October 1, 2014 223 E1-E3.
42. Rosenbaum M. 20 Years of Leptin: Role of leptin in energy homeostasis in humans. Journal of Endocrinology (2014) 223 T83–T95.
43. Pierpaoli W, Regelson W, Fabris, N, (eds) The Aging Clock: The Pineal Gland and other Pacemakers in the Progression of Aging and Carcinogenesis, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1994;719.44. Montes LGA, et al. Treatment of primary insomnia with melatonin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2003;28(3):191-6.
45. Mishima K. et al. Hypnotic and hypothermic action of daytime-administered melatonin. Psychopharmacol 1997;133:168-71.
46. Nemeroff C. (Ed.). Neuropeptides and psychiatric disorders. Progress in Psychiatry, No. 29. American Psychiatric Press. Washington, DC. 1991.
47. Silber M. Temporary peripartal impairment in memory and attention and its possible relation to oxytocin concentration. LIfe Sciencese. (1990) 47;57-65.
48. Mazurek MF, Beal MF, Bird ED, et al. Oxytocin in Alzheimer’s disease: postmortem brain levels. Neurology 1987;37:1001-03.
49. Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M. Fehr E, Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 2005;435:673-6.
50. Insel TR. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and the neuroendocrine basis of pair bond formation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;449:215-24.
51. Joborn C, Hetta J, Fisk P, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with organic brain syndrome. Acta Med Scandinavia 1986;219:91-8.
52. Velasco PJ, Manshadi M, Breen K, Lippmann S. Psychiatric aspects of parathyroid disease. Psychosomatics 1999;40(6):486-90.
53. Eichling PS. Menopause related sleep disorders. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2005.
54. Turrone P. Elevation of Prolactin Levels by Atypical Antipsychotics. (Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159:133–135).
55. Maguire G. Prolactin Elevation With Antipsychotic Medications: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Consequences. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63(suppl 4):56-62
56. Dugbartey AT. Neurocognitive aspects of hypothyroidism. Arch Intern Med 1998;158(13):1413-8. Review.
57. Davis JD, Stern RA, Flashman LA. Cognitive and neuropsychiatric aspects of subclinical hypothyroidism: significance in the elderly. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2003 0c5(5):384-90. Review.
58. Tott AD. Subclinical hyperthyroidism. NEJM 2001;345:512-6.
59. Vining, RF. The measurement of hormones in saliva: possibilities and pitfalls. J. Steroid Biochem. 27, 81-94 (1987).
O’Malley B. Steroid receptor superfamily: more excitement predicted for the future. Mol Endocrinol 1990;4(3):363-69.


Benor DJ. Survey of spiritual healing research. Comp Med Res 1990;4:9-33.
Benson H. Beyond the relaxation response. New York. Times Books, 1984.
Benson H. The mind body effect. New York. Simon & Schuster, 1979.
Benson H. Timeless healing. New York. Scribner, 1996.
Burch WM. Endocrinology. 3rd edition. William & Wilkins. Baltimore, Maryland. 1994.
Colborne T, Dumanoski D, Peterson Myers J. Our Stolen Future. Chapter 5. pp. 68-86. Plume, Penguin Books. New York. 1997.
Greenspan FS, Strewler GJ. Basic & Clinical Endocrinology. 5th edition. Appleton & Lange. Stamford, Connecticut. 1997.
Holick MF, Jenkins M. The UV advantage. Ibooks. Simon & Schuster Inc., New York. 2003.
Holick MF. Vitamin D. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999. pp.329-345.
Kiraly, SJ, Ancill RJ. Neuroendocrinology of dementia. In: Ancill RJ, Holliday SG, Thorpe L, Rabheru K. eds. Treating dementia: Cognition and beyond. Canadian Academic Press. Vancouver, BC. 2000.
McDermott MT. Endocrine Secrets. 2nd edition. Hanley & Belfus Inc., Philadelphia. 1998.
Morley JE, van den Berg L. (Eds.) Endocrinology of Aging. Humana Press. Totowa, New Jersey. 2000.
Nemeroff C. (Ed.). Neuropeptides and psychiatric disorders. Progress in Psychiatry, No. 29. American Psychiatric Press. Washington, DC. 1991.
Porterfield SP. Endocrine Physiology. Mosby Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. 2001.
Ramachandran VS. Blakeslee S. Phantom in the brain. New York. William Morrow and Co., 1998.
Sapolsky RM. Stress, and aging brain and the mechanism of neuron death. MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1992.
Wolkowitz OM, Rothschild AJ. (Eds.). Psychoneuroendocrinology – The Scientific Basis of Clinical Practice. American Psychiatric Publishing Inc., Washington, DC. 2003.

Reviewed on March 11, 2016